Bench X-ray microtomography of water-salt solution/oil injected into samples of the Botucatu formation




X-ray microtomography, Fluids, Microstructure, sandstone


This paper provides a report on the utilization of the X-ray microtomography to obtain images of the internal microstructure of natural sandstone samples from the Botucatu Formation. Its primary objective was to identify the different phases of fluids when injected into the samples to evaluate the various phases through grayscale histograms obtained from 2-D images, quantification of fluid phases, and generation of 3-D images of them. The fluids used in the experiments comprised one type of commercial oil, one type of industrial oil, and an water-salt solution. Quantitative results from 2-D and 3-D analyzes are presented and compared to the volume of injected solution and the measured volume. The phase size distributions indicated which pore radii had a more relevant participation in the percolation of fluids through the samples. Projections in conjunction with 2-D images and profiles of average percentages of air-filled pores indicated the occurrence of preferential percolation flow paths.  The 2-D images allowed the measurement of the contact angle between the phases present in the sample containing industrial oil. Different measurements taken from the sample containing commercial oil showed capillary effects indicated by the average percentage profiles of air-filled pores in the 2-D images.

Author Biographies

Leonardo Carmezini Marques, Instituto Federal do Paraná - IFPR

Prof. Dr., IFPR, Londrina, Paraná.

Carlos Roberto Appoloni, Universidade Estadual de Londrina - UEL

Prof. Dr., Dept. Physics, Applaied Nuclear Physics Group


Bear, J. (1988). Dynamics of fluids in porous media, x ed. Dover Publications, Dover, 802 p.

Brown, K., Schlüter, S., Sheppard, A., Wildeschild, D. (2014). On the challenges of measuring interfacial characteristics of three-phase fluid flow with x-ray microtomography. Journal of Microscopy, 253: 171-182,

Bultreys, T., Boever, W. D., Cnudde, V. (2016). Imaging and image-based fluid transport modeling at the pore scale in geological materials: A practical introduction to the current state-of-the-art. Earth-Science Reviews, 155: 93-128,

Cardoso, O. R., Balaban, R. C. (2015). Comparative study between Botucatu and Berea sandstone properties. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 62: 58-69,

Costa, A. A., Trivedi, J., Soares, J., Rocha, P., Costa, G.,Embiruçu, M. (2020). An experimental evaluation of low salinity water mechanisms in a typical Brazilian sandstone and light crude oil with low acid/basic number. Fuel, 273: 1-18,

Fagundes, J. R. T., Zuquette, L. V. (2011). Sorption behavior of the sandy residual unconsolidated material from the sandstones of the Botucatu Formation, the mais aquifer of Brazil. Environmental Earth Science, 62: 831-845,

Fernandes, J. S., Appoloni, C. R., Fernandes, C. P. (2019). Siltstone and sandstone pore space by X-ray microtomography. Soils and Rocks, 42(3): 281-288, 10.28927/SR.423281

Fogden, A., Middleton, J., McKay, T., Latham, S., Marathe, R., Turner, M., Sheppard, A., Howard, J. J., Lane, F. D. (2014). 3D mapping of pore and organic matter distributions in unconventional reservoir utilizing a digital rocks approach. Proc. International Symposium, Society of Core Analysts, Avignon, v. A042, pp. 1-12.

Goldstein, L., Prasher, S. O., Ghoshal, S. (2007). Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of non-aqueous phase liquid volumes in natural porous media using a medical X-ray Computed Tomography scanner. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 93: 96-110,, 2007

Ketcham, R. A., Carlson, W. D. (2001). Acquisition, optimization and interpretation of X-ray computed tomographic imagery: applications to the geosciences. Computers & Geosciences, 27: 381-400,

Kumar, M., Senden, T., Knackstedt, M., Latham, S., Pinczewski, V., Sok, R. M., Sheppard, A. P., Turner, M. L. (2009). Imaging of pore scale distribution of fluids and Wettability, Petrophysics Journal, 4: 311-321,

Marques, L. C., Appoloni, C. R., Fernandes, C. P. (2011). Porosity Study of Synthetic Sandstones by Non-Destructive Nuclear Techniques. Materials Research, 14 (3): 1-9,

Marques, L. C., Appoloni, C. R. (2015). Quantification of fluids in a glass-bead matrix using X-ray microtomography. Micron, 75: 35-43,

Moreira, A. C., Appoloni, C. R., Mantovani, I. F., Fernandes, J. S., Marques, L. C., Nagata, R., Fernandes, C. P. (2012). Effects of manual threshold setting on image analysis results of a sandstone sample structural characterization by X-ray microtomography. Applied Radiationand Isotopes, 70: 937-941,

Oliveira, E. P., Santelli, R. E., Cassella, R. J. (2008). Combined use of Pd and HF as chemical modifiers for the determination of total chromium in produced waters from petroleum exploration by ET AAS. Microchemical Jounal, 89: 116-122,

Pak, T., Butler, I. B., Geiger, S., Vandijke, M. I. J., Sorbie, K. S. (2015). Doplet fragmentation: 3D imaging of a previously unidentified pore-scale process during multiphase flow in porous media. PNAS, 112 (7): 1947-1952,

PETROBRAS. Tecnologia e Pesquisa available at and download on Octuber 8th 2019.

Rao, S. M., Sivachidambaram, S. (2013). Characterization and iodide adsorption behavior of HDPY + modified bentonite. Environmental Earth Sciences, 68: 559-566,

Rattanasak, U., Kendall, K. (2005). Pore structure of cement/pozzolan composites by X-ray microtomography. Cement and Concrete Research, 35: 637-640,

Riebe, B., Dultz, S., Bunnenberg, C. (2005). Temperature effects on iodine adsorption on organo-clay minerals I. Influence of pretreatment and adsorption temperature. Applied Clay Science, 28: 9-16,

Saetre, C., Tjugum, S. (2014). Tomographic segmentation in multiphase flow measurement. Radiation Physics and Chemestry, 95: 420-423,

Sezgin, M., Sankur, B. (2004). Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation. Journal of Electronic Imaging, 13(1): 146-165,

Vinegar, H. J., Wellington, S. L. (1987). Tomographic Imaging of Three-Phase Flow Experiments. Rev. Sci. Instrum, 58(1): 96-107,

Wildenschild, D., Culligan, K. A., Christensen, B. S. B. (2004). Application of x-ray microtomography to environmental fluid flow. Proc. 49th Annual Meeting, Optical Science and Technology. Denver, v. 5535, (Develpoments in X-Ray IV),

Wildenschild, D., Hopmans, J. W., Kent, A. J. R. (2005). Quantitative Analysis of Flow Process in a Sand Using Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography. Vadose Zone Journal, 4: 112-126,

Zeng, Q., Li, K., Fen-Chong, T., Dangla, P. (2012). Analysis of pore structure, contact angle and pore entrapment of blended cement pastes from mercury porosimetry data. Cement and Concrete Composites, 34(9): 1053-1060,

Zuquette, L. V., Palma, J. B., Pejon, O. J. (2006). Initial assessment of the infiltration and overland flow for different rainfall events in land constituted of sandstones of the Botucatu Formation (Guarani Aquifer), State of São Paulo, Brazil. Environ. Geol., 50: 371-387,




How to Cite

Marques, L. C., & Appoloni, C. R. (2023). Bench X-ray microtomography of water-salt solution/oil injected into samples of the Botucatu formation. Semina: Ciências Exatas E Tecnológicas, 43(2), 199–210.



Original Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)