Carbon stock, chemical and physical properties of soils under management systems with different deployment times in western region of Paraná, Brazil
Palavras-chave:No-till, Carbon accumulation, Crop succession.
The objective of this study was evaluate the organic carbon stock and chemical and physical properties of soils in management systems with different deployment times under clayey Red Latosol in western region of Paraná, Brazil. Five managed areas and a reference area (native forest) without anthropic action were analyzed in completely randomized design with five repetitions. Management systems include three areas with different time of first adoption of no-till: 6 years – NT6 (transition phase), 14 years – NT14 (consolidation phase) and 22 years – NT22 (maintenance phase); 16 years of no-till, and in the last four years with integration of maize and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) – (NT+B) and an area of permanent and continuous extensive cattle pasture of coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon) – (P). Physical and chemical properties, total soil organic carbon (TOC) stock and carbon stratification index (SI) of soils were evaluated in depths of 0-0.05; 0.05-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The macroporosity (MA) was higher in the area of native forest, ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 m3 m-3 and the microporosity (MI) was higher in cultivated areas. The areas of NT+B and P presented lower ratio macroporosity/total pore volume (MA/TPV). For soil bulk density (BD) and soil penetration resistance (SPR), the managed areas show higher values, suggesting the occurrence of compacted subsurface layers. Native forest area showed the highest TOC levels in the depths of 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, reaching 30.5 g kg-1 in the 0–0.05 m soil layer. There was negative change on TOC stocks in the managed areas in relation to forest area, being more evident in the more superficial soil layers. The SI was greater than one, however there is a reduction in function of adoption time of no-till. There was higher soil compaction in the managed areas, and the NT in soybean/maize succession system does not contribute effectively to the increase of TOC stocks.
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